CSS Reference

"vertical-align" - css property (v. css 1)

  • Indicates the vertical alignment of an element
  • Initial value: baseline
  • The property is not inherited
  • HTML usage: inline-level and 'table-cell' elements
  • Browsers that support the vertical-align - property :
    Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox Opera Google Chrome Apple Safari

Possible vertical-align values:

value Comments CSS
baseline Align the baseline of the box with the baseline of the parent box. If the box does not have a baseline, align the bottom margin edge with the parent's baseline. 1
middle Align the vertical midpoint of the box with the baseline of the parent box plus half the x-height of the parent. 1
sub Lower the baseline of the box to the proper position for subscripts of the parent's box. (This value has no effect on the font size of the element's text.) 1
super Raise the baseline of the box to the proper position for superscripts of the parent's box. (This value has no effect on the font size of the element's text.) 1
text-top Align the top of the box with the top of the parent's content area. 1
text-bottom Align the bottom of the box with the bottom of the parent's content area. 1
top Align the top of the aligned subtree with the top of the line box. Allways relative to the line box. 1
bottom Align the bottom of the aligned subtree with the bottom of the line box. Allways relative to the line box. 1
percentage Raise (positive value) or lower (negative value) the box by this distance (a percentage of the 'line-height' value). The value '0%' means the same as 'baseline'. 1
length Raise (positive value) or lower (negative value) the box by this distance. The value '0cm' means the same as 'baseline'. With this you specify a positive(+) or negative(-) value followed with a unit identifier. 2
inherit Will inherit the value from parent specification. 2

Possible unit identifier:

unit identifier Comments CSS
em The relative unit 'em' is relative to the font size of the element itself. 1
ex The relative unit 'ex' is relative to the font size of the element itself. 1
px Pixels, relative to the viewing device 1
in inches -> 1 inch is equal to 2.54 centimeters. 1
cm centimeters. 1
mm millimeters. 1
pt points -> the points used by CSS2 are equal to 1/72th of an inch. 1
pc picas -> 1 pica is equal to 12 points. 1

Property "vertical-align" example:

<!DOCTYPE HTML >
<html  >
  <head>
    <title>Test</title>
    <style type="text/css">
      div {border: blue 1px solid; color:black;
           padding: .5em .5em .5em .5em; width: 400px;
           }
      .middle { vertical-align: middle; }
      .length { vertical-align: 0.5em; }    /* length */
      .percentage { vertical-align: 10%; }    /* percentage */

    </style>
  </head>
  <body>
    <br>vertical-align: 0.5em; /* length */ <br>
    <div >
      <img class="length" src="images/Trophy.png"
           alt="Trophy"
           width="30" height="30"/>
      Raise (positive value) or
      lower (negative value) the box by this distance.
      The value '0cm' means the same as 'baseline'.
    </div>
    <br>vertical-align: 10%; /* percentage */ <br>
    <div >
      <img class="percentage" src="images/Trophy.png"
           alt="Trophy"
           width="30" height="30"/>
      Raise (positive value)
      or lower (negative value) the box by this
      distance (a percentage of the 'line-height' value).
      The value '0%' means the same as 'baseline'.
    </div>
    <br>vertical-align: middle;<br>
    <div >
      <img class="middle" src="images/Trophy.png"
           alt="Trophy"
           width="30" height="30"/>
      Align the vertical midpoint of
      the box with the baseline of the parent box
      plus half the x-height of the parent.
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

Javascript access:

// To SET values ([o] is the target object)
[o].style.textAlign="text-align value"
// To GET values you must first get the computed style object
// To get that object in IE or Opera:
var cStyle=[o].currentStyle;
// To get that object in Firefox, Chrome or Safari (w3c-type):
var cStyle=window.getComputedStyle([o],null)
// To GET the property value:;
var value=cStyle.textAlign;
/* Don not expect that alle browsers returns the right initial value when a text-align values is NOT set.*/
/* The returned value is not cross-browser reliable. The value can vary in accuracy and notation, which depends on the browser, whether the value is preset or not and which option that was used to set the value.*/
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